## Thursday, December 31, 2009

### [Science Form 4] Organised & Systematic

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Science enables us to learn about the world we live in. To do that, data need to be collected in an organized way - through systematic investigation.

Below is the steps of carrying out a systematic investigation in the correct order.
1. Identify the problem.

2. Make a hypothesis.

3. Identify the variables.

4. Plan the experiment.

5. Determine the apparatus and materials.

6. Determine the procedures.

7. Carry out the experiment.

8. Collect the data.

9. Analyze the data.

10. Interpret the data.

11. Draw conclusions.
***
Example:
Select a reported incident from newspaper. Based on the article, make a hypothesis. Then, plan an experiment to test the hypothesis. The point from (a) to (i) , should be included.
Eg: pollution

a) Problem statement: Location A and B are polluted.

b) Objective: To find out the level of pollution in location A and B.

c) Hypothesis: Location A is more polluted than location B.

d) Variables:
• Manipulated: Area selected.
• Responding: Level of pollution.
• Fixed: The time the papers are exposed.
e) Material and apparatus: Filter paper, gum, and cardboard A and B.

f) Procedure:
1. Stick a filter paper of equal size each on cardboards A and B.
2. Place cardboard A at location A (by a road side) and cardboard B at location B (in a garden).
3. After two hours, check the filter papers.
g) Result: Location A is more polluted than location B.

h) Discussion:
• The passing cars emit a lot of carbon particles from their exhausts. These carbon particles rest on the white filter paper. Hence, the filter paper turns greyish. The other filter paper at location B has only a few black dots on it. This means that fewer pollutants rest on it. So location B is less polluted.
i) Conclusion: Location B is less polluted than location A.

***
Note:
Always remember to be truthful when conducting and reporting investigations. Report only the actual facts and never let your opinions and emotions influence your findings.

## Wednesday, December 30, 2009

### [Science Form 1] Animal, Plant & It's Resources

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Here is the example of the animals and plants that produce the resources below.
• Pandan / Screw Pine
Resources: Leaves for hats and mats.

• Crocodile, snake, cow, elephant
Resources: Skin for shoe, bags, belts.

• Whale, coconut, palm
Resources: Oil for lamps.

• Rubber tree
Resources: Latex for shoes and gloves.

• Quinine
Resources: Medicine for malaria.

• Leech, maggot
Resources: Assist in body repair and surgery.

### [Science Form 1] Living Organisms

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Living organisms are among the earth's essential natural resources. They include both plants and animals.

Living organisms provide the basic ingredients/materials to produce;
• Food

• Clothes

• Building Materials

• Fuels
All these items help fulfill the basic needs of human beings.

## Tuesday, December 29, 2009

### [Science Form 2] Importance Of Biodiversity

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Biodiversity is not only important to the environment, but also to the well-being of Man.

Importance of biodiversity to Man.
1. Raw materials.
Many plants and animals provide various goods of products to humans, many of which play important roles in human economies.

2. Food
Plant and animal diversity provides a variety of food for Man.

3. Medicines and herbs
Many plants are rich sources of traditional and modern medicines. These are used to treat and prevent diseases.

4. Genetic diversity
The wealth of gene pools increases diversity in future generations. Eg: for better crops.

5. Ecology
All species are supported by the interactions among other species, each providing an ecological value to another such as pollination, nutrient cycling and also the regulation of the atmosphere and climate.

Plant and trees provide oxygen to the atmosphere; wetlands and forest provide clean water through filtration.

### [Science Form 2] Diversity In Abundance

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The variety of living organisms on Earth is known as biodiversity or biological diversity. Not only is it found in vertebrates, it also present in plants, invertebrates and microorganisms.

In addition, biodiversity exists at all levels of habitats and climates, such as forests, island, coral reefs, mountaintops and deserts.

Generally, there are three levels of biodiversity, and they are defined as below.

Genetic diversity
• The variation in genes within and between populations.

Species diversity

• The variation in the number and distribution of species within and between populations.

Ecosystem diversity

• The variation in habitats, communities and ecological processes within and between ecosystems.
Of the three levels, the common measure of biodiversity is species diversity.

Eg: The level of biodiversity in a forest is higher than that in a paddy field because a greater number of species can be found in a forest.

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Fact:
The number of known species on Earth is recorded at approximately 1.6 million, most of which are insects. However, the actual number of species on Earth may be up to 30 million.
*******

## Monday, December 28, 2009

### [Science Form 1] Oxygen Is Needed For A Fire To Burn

>>> Pakej Pembelajaran & Penilaian Online <<<
There are many experiments that you can do to show that oxygen is needed for a fire to burn. Let's take a look at one of these experiments.

Procedure:
1. A candle is lighted, and when it is burning well, a glass jar (like a jelly jar) is inverted over the candle.
2. The water level is immediately marked.
3. After the candle stops burning, the water level is marked again.
4. The amount of air required for the candle to burn is calculated using the following formula:

Observation:
When the burning candle is completely extinguished, water rises up and fills one-fifth (1/5) of the original volume of air in the glass jar.

Discussion:
The glass that supports the burning of the candle makes up about one-fifth of the composition of air in the glass jar.

Since the oxygen makes up one-fifth of the volume of air, it can be concluded that oxygen is used in the combustion of the candle.

*******
Facts:
• The cork base keeps the candle afloat.
• The glass jar contains nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapour.
• When the candle completely burns out, water in the jar rises.
• The height of air in the column is used to calculate the amount of air used.
• The candle stops burning because all the oxygen in the jar has been used.
• Oxygen supports the combustion of the candle.
*******

## Wednesday, December 23, 2009

### [Science Form 4] Responding Rightly

>>> Pakej Pembelajaran & Penilaian Online <<<
Voluntary actions are acts we are aware of and intend to do, while involuntary actions are acts that our body carries out automatically.

Many picture in newspaper show people in the process of carrying out voluntary actions. Pick any picture you like. Then, based on the picture, write out the reactions that his/her body experiences before responding to the stimulus.

The footballer's receptor organs - his eyes - receive an environmental stimulus, which is the ball. Next, his eyes send electrical impulses through the sensory neurons to his brain. At the sight centre, the approaching ball is being interpreted, and impulses to kick the ball are generated. Impulses are sent through the effector neurons to his leg muscles. The footballer's leg then kicks the ball.

## Friday, December 18, 2009

### SEA Games: Malaysia beats Vietnam 1-0 in final

>>> Pakej Pembelajaran & Penilaian Online <<<
BY ERIC SAMUEL

VIENTIANE: Malaysia finally ended its 20-year gold drought in the SEA Games men’s football competition, when it defeated Vietnam 1-0 in the final played at the Main Stadium of the National Sports Complex in Vientiane on Thursday.

The National Under-23 boys, who came here as non-medal prospects, pulled off one of the biggest upsets of the Games to win the gold.

Malaysia last won the football gold in the Kuala Lumpur SEA Games in 1989, with a 1-0 victory over Singapore.

Vietnam's Mai Xuan Hop (right) weeps as the Malaysians celebrate their 1-0
victory in the Laos SEA Games football final. Mai's own goal proved
to be the'decisive winner' for the Malaysians. - AP Photo

The ‘winner’ came courtesy of an own goal by Vietnam’s Mai Xuan Hop’s in the 84th minute of a toughly-fought final. The football gold medal was also Malaysia’s 40th gold medal in Vientiane.

The victory was all the more sweeter as the Malaysians had lost 1-3 to Vietnam in a group match on Dec 6.

Earlier, the young Malaysians had knocked out defending champions Thailand 2-1 in the group stage to win a place in the semi-finals.

Then in the last four, they downed Laos 3-1 in front of a sell-out 20,000 fans.

## Thursday, December 17, 2009

### Score A Programme System

>>> Pakej Pembelajaran & Penilaian Online <<<
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### Salam Maal Hijrah 1431H

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Salam Maal Hijrah 1431H

*******
Source: Wikipedia

The Islamic New Year also known as 'Maal Hijrah', is a cultural event which Muslims observe on the first day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar. Many Muslims use the day to remember the significance of this month, and the Hijra, or migration, Islamic prophet Muhammad made it to the city now known as Medina.

Recently, in many areas of Muslim population, people have begun exchanging cards and gifts on this day, though this is not commonly done. For Shia Muslims, Muharram is the month grief and sorrow because they mourn the death of Imam Hussain and his companions on the day of Ashura.

Ras as-Sana (Arabic: Ø±Ø£Ø³ Ø§Ù„Ø³Ù†Ø© ) is the Islamic celebration of the new Hijri year. The term is similarly used in the Arabic language to mark the start of the new Gregorian year. The word literally means "Head of the year," and is cognate to the Hebrew term Rosh Hashanah.

Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 11 to 12 days shorter than the solar year, Muharram migrates throughout the seasons. The estimated start dates for Muharram are as follows (all future dates are estimates and depend on sightings of the new moon), though strictly speaking the month starts at sunset on previous day:

• 1410 AH: 2 August 1989
• 1411 AH: 23 July 1990
• 1412 AH: 12 July 1991
• 1413 AH: 1 July 1992
• 1414 AH: 20 June 1993
• 1415 AH: 10 June 1994
• 1416 AH: 30 May 1995
• 1417 AH: 19 May 1996
• 1418 AH: 8 May 1997
• 1419 AH: 28 April 1998
• 1420 AH: 17 April 1999
• 1421 AH: 5 April 2000
• 1422 AH: 26 March 2001
• 1423 AH: 15 March 2002
• 1424 AH: 4 March 2003
• 1425 AH: 22 February 2004
• 1426 AH: 10 February 2005
• 1427 AH: 31 January 2006
• 1428 AH: 20 January 2007
• 1429 AH: 10 January 2008
• 1430 AH: 29 December 2008
• 1431 AH: 18 December 2009
• 1432 AH: 7 December 2010
• 1433 AH: 26 November 2011
• 1434 AH: 15 November 2012
• 1435 AH: 4 November 2013

## Friday, December 11, 2009

>>> Pakej Pembelajaran & Penilaian Online <<<
Just setup my page at Facebook... Hehehe...

## Wednesday, December 02, 2009

### [Science Form 2] Experiment - Air Pressure

>>> Pakej Pembelajaran & Penilaian Online <<<
This is very interesting experiment. All you need is a hard-boiled egg, a bottle, and three matchsticks.

Here's what you do:
1. Make sure the mouth of the bottle is just small enough to keep the egg from falling inside.
2. Set the bottle on the table, and peel the egg.
3. Light the three matchsticks and drop them into the bottle.
4. Quickly place the egg over the mouth of the bottle.

This is what you would observe... the egg is sucked into the bottle.

1. Discuss with your partner how you would explain this phenomena and write it out.
Explanation: The lit matchsticks heat the air inside the bottle. When air is heated, it expands. As the heated air expands, some of it escapes out of the bottle. When the matches go out, the air inside the bottle cools and contracts, thus creating a lower air pressure inside the bottle than outside. The greater pressure outside the bottle forces the egg into the bottle.

2. Now, what would you do to get the egg out of the bottle?
Turn the bottle upside down and blow into it.

The increased air pressure in the bottle will cause the egg to pop back out.

### [Science Form 1] The Air Around Us

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What is air pollution?

Air pollution occurs when the air is tainted or contaminated with substances that are harmful to living things and pollute the environment. These substances are called air pollutants.

Look at the below examples of air pollutants.

Examples of air pollutant:
• Carbon dioxide
• Carbon monoxide
• Chlorofluoro-carbons
• Dust, pollen