## Thursday, December 31, 2009

### [Science Form 4] Organised & Systematic

Science enables us to learn about the world we live in. To do that, data need to be collected in an organized way - through systematic investigation.

Below is the steps of carrying out a systematic investigation in the correct order.
1. Identify the problem.

2. Make a hypothesis.

3. Identify the variables.

4. Plan the experiment.

5. Determine the apparatus and materials.

6. Determine the procedures.

7. Carry out the experiment.

8. Collect the data.

9. Analyze the data.

10. Interpret the data.

11. Draw conclusions.
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Example:
Select a reported incident from newspaper. Based on the article, make a hypothesis. Then, plan an experiment to test the hypothesis. The point from (a) to (i) , should be included.
Eg: pollution

a) Problem statement: Location A and B are polluted.

b) Objective: To find out the level of pollution in location A and B.

c) Hypothesis: Location A is more polluted than location B.

d) Variables:
• Manipulated: Area selected.
• Responding: Level of pollution.
• Fixed: The time the papers are exposed.
e) Material and apparatus: Filter paper, gum, and cardboard A and B.

f) Procedure:
1. Stick a filter paper of equal size each on cardboards A and B.
2. Place cardboard A at location A (by a road side) and cardboard B at location B (in a garden).
3. After two hours, check the filter papers.
g) Result: Location A is more polluted than location B.

h) Discussion:
• The passing cars emit a lot of carbon particles from their exhausts. These carbon particles rest on the white filter paper. Hence, the filter paper turns greyish. The other filter paper at location B has only a few black dots on it. This means that fewer pollutants rest on it. So location B is less polluted.
i) Conclusion: Location B is less polluted than location A.

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Note:
Always remember to be truthful when conducting and reporting investigations. Report only the actual facts and never let your opinions and emotions influence your findings.