Tuesday, June 16, 2009

[Biology Form 4] Phases Of Cell Cycle And Mitosis - Prophase

Normally, the genetic material in the nucleus is in a loosely bundled coil called chromatin. At the onset of prophase, chromatin condenses together into a highly ordered structure called a chromosome.

Since the genetic material has already been duplicated earlier in S phase, the replicated chromosomes have two sister chromatids, bound together at the centromere by the cohesion complex. Chromosomes are visible at high magnification through a light microscope.

Close to the nucleus are structures called centrosomes, which are made of a pair of centrioles. The centrosome is the coordinating center for the cell's microtubules.

A cell inherits a single centrosome at cell division, which replicates before a new mitosis begins, giving a pair of centrosomes.

The two centrosomes nucleate microtubules (which may be thought of as cellular ropes or poles) to form the spindle by polymerizing soluble tubulin.

Molecular motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite side of the cell.

Although centrosomes help organize microtubule assembly, they are not essential for the formation of the spindle, since they are absent from plants, and centrosomes are not always used in meiosis.

Prophase: The two round objects above the nucleus are
the centrosomes. The chromatin has condensed

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