Nota Terkini

Tuesday, June 16, 2009

[Biology Form 4] Phases Of Cell Cycle And Mitosis - Prometaphase

The nuclear envelope disassembles and microtubules invade the nuclear space. This is called open mitosis, and it occurs in most multicellular organisms. Fungi and some protists, such as algae or trichomonads, undergo a variation called closed mitosis where the spindle forms inside the nucleus or its microtubules are able to penetrate an intact nuclear envelope.

Each chromosome forms two kinetochores at the centromere, one attached at each chromatid. A kinetochore is a complex protein structure that is analogous to a ring for the microtubule hook; it is the point where microtubules attach themselves to the chromosome. Although the kinetochore structure and function are not fully understood, it is known that it contains some form of molecular motor.

When a microtubule connects with the kinetochore, the motor activates, using energy from ATP to "crawl" up the tube toward the originating centrosome. This motor activity, coupled with polymerisation and depolymerisation of microtubules, provides the pulling force necessary to later separate the chromosome's two chromatids.

When the spindle grows to sufficient length, kinetochore microtubules begin searching for kinetochores to attach to. A number of nonkinetochore microtubules find and interact with corresponding nonkinetochore microtubules from the opposite centrosome to form the mitotic spindle. Prometaphase is sometimes considered part of prophase.

Prometaphase: The nuclear membrane has degraded, and microtubules
have invaded the nuclear space. These microtubules can attach to
kinetochores or they can interact with opposing microtubules.

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